From all the people I talked to (beyond just the blog world), my unscientific conclusion is that more people trust and believe in compression than those who don't. Not life-shattering news, but it's still interesting to see that even though compression garments aren't 100% proven to be effective, people are still willing to pay quite a bit for them and make quite a fashion statement when wearing them around town.
Last night I wore these when teaching my fitness class at Sport Performance Institute... um, only a few perplexed looks lol. Talk about Zoot'd-out in pink! The crazier the better I say!
I also dug into my grad-school research I've done on compression to guide my article (my lit review was my BFF) and interviewed some experts and pros, including Joe Friel and Andy Potts. My talk with Joe inspired this blog, I even sent him my bibliography on compression so hopefully some of the studies he mentions were thanks to me ;)
I want to talk more about compression, starting with my interview with Andy and share the stuff we discussed (not all of what's below made it into the article, so I guess you can say this it a TriTawn exclusive lol). As a side note, Andy is a great guy; I've met him a couple times in Kona and even though I don't know him that well, talking to him on the phone was like talking to an old friend. I could have written a whole article on our talk alone.
Andy is sponsored by CEP, but he started wearing compression even before that for recovery reasons. He eventually wore out the one pair of compression socks he had, which prompted the sponsorship. He now wears compression during big workouts and competition, too. He's a believer!
He believes compression works for recovery: "After a tough workout, I throw them on and elevate the feet; I pay more attention to getting blood flow back to the heart. One of the properties that turned me on was no issues with tweaking tendonds, ligaments and muscles [after a workout]; the socks help keep everything in place. I relax and focus [on recovery], and I don't have to worry about being so gentle to the lower body... The socks are part of the [recovery] process. It's one of the triggers to relax and gets that exhale effect going."
Andy now wears compression during big training sessions and racing, too, and believes they have a significant effect even if it doesn't necessarily make him go faster: "In terms of training and competition, compression keeps everything together. It helps with rebounding in the muscles and you're not as violent on the muscles. It reduces muscle [oscillation]. When you have so much fatigue, it's easy for the muscles to just quit, but with CEP compression, muscles are kept in place so they can fire properly. It may not add to physical performance, but it makes a difference to have compression keeping everything in place, especially over longer durations.
He's willing to take a few extra seconds to put the socks on in T2: "It takes time to put them on, it's a technique. I sit down to do it. I fold the socks into quarters then fold them down and have them waiting in the proper shoe. First it goes on over the toe box then over the heel then up the calf. It probably takes 7 seconds longer than putting on regular socks, or 20 seconds longer than if you were to put no socks on in T2."
Compression also helps Andy's temperature perception. "I play a game with myself; I tell myself the socks are keeping me cooler in a place like Kona and warmer in a place like Coeur D'Alene when it's cold there."
As a side note, there are some claims that compression could aid in thermoregulation (maintaining the right body temp), and while this hasn't been proven in studies, there's still the potential, even if it's placebo, which seems to be the issue in Andy's case.... whatever works!
Lastly, Andy was excited to talk about what CEP will be offering in the near future: "CEP, which provides the medical-grade compression, has a new product out called the Clone, which is over-the-hip pants and everyone gets a custom fit for them. The rep takes [a bunch of] measurements and then custom makes their Clone; it takes about 10 days to get it."
Some of my thoughts on compression in brief (I could go on for hours)....
1. I do believe compression works for recovery. Personally, I notice significantly less swelling in my feet and ankles if I wear compression post-exercise, no matter if the workout was moderate or major. That makes a difference the next day and so on because compression helps get the blood flowing and shuttle out all the "gunk," aka bodily fluids, that could cause DOMS (muscle soreness) and other delays in recovery. I also have circulation issues to begin with, so my feet/lower legs love compression.
2. I don't think compression will work for enhancing performance significantly, i.e. don't expect compression to be the key to setting new PRs, etc. However, I think it's worth putting on during exercise/competition for the reasons Andy stated (enhanced perception, muscle "comfort," etc) and beyond. There is some research to show that it can help physiological mechanisms and even enhance efficiency, but more so compression increases comfort for a lot of people. Even if you can't measure the data to show a faster race or better circulation, if it's more comfortable for you, then why not wear it?! Plus, wearing compression during exercise can begin the process of faster recovery--you don't have to wait until after the workout or race to throw them on.
3. I have some skepticism about the "grade" and mmHG of commercial compression garments, and socks in particular. In most studies I read, they use some heavy-duty compression, the real medical-grade stuff, and I'm not sure that all athletic compression companies offer the same level of compression. Not to mention, some of these studies get custom-fit compression for the subjects, which makes benefts more likely (we are not a one-size-fits-all world!).
Compression is measured in mmHG, which implies how much pressure it exerts. The best kind of lower-leg compression is graded (differnt pressures), with mmHG that ranges from 20-40 mmHG, which promotes the upward flow of fluids to prevent stagnation. For any compression used in the athletic arena, it's safe to say anything below 15 mmHG is probably pointless. My Zoot stuff has some numbers: says it's 18-30 mmHG, which is pretty decent and personally I think it's enough to get some results recovery-wise. I don't know about the other brands.
4. Compression for body parts beyond the lower legs is a little sketchy. If you're on a budget, stick to the socks, which help shuttle out the by-products of working out, help the calf-muscle pumps works efficiently. Plus, they're great for traveling, for those overcoming injury, for people who work on their feet a lot, and helpful in clinical situations (i.e. DVT -- Serena Williams anyone?), and so on...On the flip side, compression tops might help with posture ever-so-slightly and shorts or leggings might help with muscle response (studies show it can increase jump height but do triathletes care about that?), while any extra garment might keep you warmer and more comfortable, but overall, I don't think those garments will do much to help circulation and blood flow or enhance recovery like the socks do. The socks are meant to flush the gunk up and out, so I don't get how that works with compression on other areas, not to mention compression sleeves (??). If it's a comfort thing or about compressing the muscle to "keep everything in place," like Andy said, that's one thing, but that might be where it ends. Hm.
*If you want to anything more about compression or have any specific questions for me, let me know, I'd be happy to discuss the subject further.
PS - Because I might have gotten your hopes up about a potential reward for telling me about your compression habits or lack thereof, I feel bad and am therefore going to do a little giveaway on here in the coming days in which a male and female will benefit... I just have to think of a good contest.